This is in tribute to a hundred years of serious European scholarship in the field of Byzantine studies. It comes in Arabic to assure European scholars that the torch which they have carried for so long has already lit the way in Arab lands. The Jesuit University of Beirut, famous for its research, has not taken active interest in the field of Byzantine studies. Rev. Father René Mouterde, so famous for his research in the field of Greek epigraphy and archaeology is, however, preparing for the press a very valuable history of Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine up to the end of the Byzantine period. A scholar, a saint, and a gentleman, Father Mouterde has helped considerably to awaken interest in Greek studies in general. Three national universities, in Cairo, Damascus, and Beirut have already recognized the importance of Byzantine studies and have included such studies in their official programmes. The American University of Beirut gives one semester course in alternate years on the general history of the Byzantine Empire. Other universities in the Arab world will have to follow, and special chairs will have to be gendowed for the promotion of research in these fields of knowledge. A thorough understanding of Arab thought, art, and history requires an adequate appreciation of Greek and Byzantine contributions to human culture and an exact knowledge of historical events across a contiguous border for centuries of history.

A study of Iconoclasm and Orthodox Sunday is particulary interesting to half a million Christians in the Churches of Antioch, Jerusalem, and Alexandria, who continue to use Greek side by side with Arabic in their prayers and who never cease to look for spiritual inspiration and guidance in the works of the Greek Fathers and the decisions of the seven Oecumenical Councils. To these Greek Orthodox and Greek Catholic Christians, the study of every aspect of Byzantine History is necessary for a correct understanding of their ecclesiastical, liturgical, and spiritual heritage. With their Semitic and Greek approach to Sacred Literature, and their modern scientific training, they must have much to say for a more correct understanding of .Byzantine thought and general Christian philosophy and theology

This little paper is a very humble effort to put together the results of European research on Iconoclasm and Orthodox Sunday. It is a pioneer attempt to place at the disposal of Arabic speaking Christians and Moslems, a scientific presentation of the problem of images in the Christian Church. It carries two messages to European scholars: Training in Greek language, literature, philosophy and theology, is not sufficient for a scientific study of Byzantine History. European centres of Byzantine studies must insist on thorough training in historical methodology. Then, in the second place, Welhausen, Lammens and other European scholars have exaggerated the liberal tendencies of Omayyad Courts. Like every other Moslem state, the Omayyad .Kingdom was first and foremost a Moslem institution

A. J. R.
Ras- Beirut
Aug. 15, 1958.